Summary- Diplomacy and home-based politics: the logic of two- level games By simply Robert D. Putnam

-- Domestic Governmental policies and foreign relations will be entangled, one particular influencing the other - E. g the Bonn negotiations in which a proposal was performed by Asia, Germany plus the USA to recuperate the train locomotive from oil shock

- In these negotiations a package deal was made that was for all stars better than the status quo

- The Bonn summit produced a balanced agreement of unparalleled breadth and specificity in which each of the parts of the package deal were truly implemented  How was this conceivable?

- 1) Key government authorities adopted procedures which were totally different from those which they will have implemented without this international arbitration

- 2) Power minorities in each government favoured policy about domestic ground the two- level game in intercontinental negotiations

- Politics of international talks can be developed as a two level video game: - 1) domestic level: domestic organizations put pressure on authorities to adopt favoured policies ( build coalitions)

- 2) International level: national government authorities want to optimize ability to gratify domestic pressure and decrease adverse consequences foreign innovations - ( both amounts must be taken into account)

- national political leaders appear in both games ( moves which can be rational pertaining to the personal leader on one board could possibly be impolitic for him on the other one) - nevertheless both online games interact

- therefore countrywide political head often seek to spot a move on a single board which will trigger realignments on the other one ` two- table metaphor´ theory of ratification: significance of win- arranged

- Regarding a two- level game the negotiators representing two organisations satisfy to find an agreement but know that already this agreement needs to be ratified by their particular organisation

- The negotiator seeks to find an agreement that will be attractive to his constituents ( because they will need to validate the agreement in the end)

- There are 2 phases in finding a:

- 1) Level We: on this level the negotiators bargain in order to find a sensitive agreement - 2) Level II: with this level a unique discussion inside each group of constituents takes place in which they will discuss set up agreement may be ratified ( vote upon) - In order to find a fulfilling agreement which may be ratified ultimately, the win-sets of both levels have to overlap ( in general the larger the win- sets the greater they will overlap and the different way around)

- The win- set of Level II can be considered because all likely Level We agreements that could gain most among the matters (meaning that a larger win- set of Level II makes agreements on Level I actually more likely)

- But just the same there is always the possibility of failing ratification which can be distinguished into 2 defections:

- 1) Voluntary defection: it identifies reneging by a rational egoist in the a shortage of enforceable agreements

- 2) Involuntary defects: refers to the behaviour of an agent that is unable to deliver on a assurance because of failed ratification, therefore only promise what you have the ability to deliver ( ` deliver ability´ )

- In general the trustworthiness of the arbitrator peacemaker at Level I is usually enhanced with a negotiators capability to deliver for Level II ( thus if they can ensure ratification of arrangement met in Level I)

- The smaller the win- set the higher the risk of involuntary defection -- ( generally the costs of both defections is quite high although actors in international cooperation have incentives to be a cheater the risk is minimized if he or she expect to meet up with again- anarchic `self- help´)

- In general in two- level game titles the size of the win- collection is important since the relative size of the particular Level 2 win- pieces will affect the distribution of the joint profits from the worldwide bargaining

- the larger the perceived win- set of a negotiator, a lot more he can end up being pushed about by the different Level I negotiators

- Therefore a...


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