Every language carries certain features that distinguish it from other languages although the languages descending from the same origin show greater resemblances than the kinds descending by different households, the comparison are what make learning another terminology an easy task or an exhausting one. In the field of linguistics, the study of the internal composition of words- since phrases are the factors constructing virtually any language and they are generally accepted being the smallest devices of any vocabulary syntax- is important; it is clear that in most (if certainly not all) languages, words could be related to additional words by rules and any terminology speakers may recognize the words and their particular relations using their tacit familiarity with the rules of word-formation. These types of rules happen to be understood by native presenter and reveal specific patterns in the way words are shaped from small units and how those small units have interaction in presentation. In this way, morphology is the subset of linguistics that studies habits of word-formation within and across different languages, and tries to produce rules that model the ability of the audio speakers and scholars of these dialects. In this daily news we have addressed the general meanings of morphology, morphemes in both types: free and bound, and focused on the bound a single, its classifications in Arabic and English language, then all of us stated the morphological operations under that the bound morpheme goes which will result in morphemic shifts inside the same terminology and across both 'languages', and finally concluding that despite the similarities among Arabic and English in morphemic level-in terms of derivational and inflectional features- Arabic symbolizes a more difficult and peculiar challenge to get native audio system and international learners but this does not decrease its richness, depth and gracefulness.
2 . Morphology and Morphemes: Definitions:
The science that deals with the internal composition of the words and the organized form-meaning correspondences between words is morphology; David Very defines morphology as the branch of grammar which studies the framework or forms of words, generally through the use of the morpheme build. It is generally divided into two fields: inflectional morphology and derivational morphology (Crystal: 2008). The term morphology has been taken over from biology where it really is used to represent the study of the forms of plants and family pets, and it was first intended for linguistic uses in 1859 by the The german language linguist August Schleicher to relate to the examine of the form of words (Geert Booij: 2012). In Persia, morphology is definitely traditionally defined as the science that is related to the structure of the word plus the letters that form this and whether or not they are unique letters (constructing its root) or certainly not (affixes) (Al-Mahasna: 2014). The forms researched in morphology are called Morphemes; they are the smallest forms (i. e., voiced and/or written units) within a language which includes meanings or perhaps grammatical functions (Delahunty: 2010) e. g. Cat is actually a word consisting of one morpheme, cat. Cats consists of two morphemes, kitty and –s (indicating plural). In present-day linguistics, a morpheme is definitely the smallest product at the construction level. In Arabic, Hasan defines the morphemes since the constructional forms and perhaps they are not morphological elements yet integral working units of a morphological system (Hasan: 1990); another description is by Mahmood Sa'ran in which he says that morphemes represent the relation(s) that are established between the perceptions and connotations (Al-Sa'ran: 1963), e. g. رجل ،رجلان، رجال and ضَرَبَ, ضارِب، مضروب. Terms may be made from one morpheme or more than one; additionally it is known that morphemes are composed by phoneme (the tiniest linguistically special units of sound) in spoken language, and by grapheme (the most compact units of written language) in drafted language. In both Arabic and The english language, morphemes will be of two types: free and bound. In the...
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Crystal, David (2008) A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics, Sixth edition
Crystal David (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, Second edition. Cambridge University Press: CUP, pp. 90
Delahunty, Gerald Tanker (2010) The English dialect: from sound to perception
Dinneen, Francis(1967) An Introduction to General Linguistics. New York: Holt, pp. 49-60
Heß, Juliane(2009) English Morphology: Inflection Vs Derivation
Omar, Hanan Khatab (2012) A morphological Research of Reduplication in English with Reference to Arabic, Adab Al-Farahedy magazine, Dec no . 13, pp. 75-76
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Yusuf, K. Um. and Omar Z., (Khalid Osman Yusuf and Zakaria Omar)(2011)Arabic Dialect Morphemes: Methodical Manner in Arabic Linguistic Study, Vol. 2, Number 2 Diary of Linguistics and Fictional Studies, Malaysia, pp. 32-44