Age of puberty is the midsection period of years as a child transition to adulthood where a teenager slowly engages and interacts with the outside world. It is also a time of options and dangers for children where they will get the possibility to develop physically, socially and cognitively but also easily troubled by risky behaviours such as improper use of substance. According to Clark and Thatcher (2008), adolescence is the " developmental period of highest risk for the onset of challenging alcohol and also other drug”. Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous utilization of psychoactive chemicals, including alcoholic beverages and dubious drugs, which will lead to habit and is very likely to continue in adulthood. (World Health Business, 2013). At present, adolescent have got trending in alcohol and other prescription drugs abuse as common tradition during teenage years stage. In respect to Universe Health Organization (2013), 320, 000 young adults between the associated with 15 and 29 passed away from alcohol-related causes, leading to 9% coming from all deaths in that age group. To overcome this self-deteriorating happening, researchers have got conducted series of experiments and studies in searching for what causes this high-risk behaviour. One of many identified risk factors for the teen substance abuse is teenagers relationship including their father and mother, siblings, and peers. In our discussion paper, we will examine in the social learning theory produced by Albert Bandura searching further into the developmental periods in foundation observational learning through modelling and self-reinforcement and also how this kind of theoretical perspective is applied into teenagers relationship which in turn influences these people in alcohol and also other drugs misuse issues. Ideal pictures will probably be illustrated to boost the comprehension of social learning theory.

Social Learning Theory

The key theorist who have proposed interpersonal learning theory came from the collaboration function of Albert Bandura and Robert Pep boys (Grusec, 1992). Bandura's simple idea is the fact learning can occur through remark or case rather than exclusively by direct reinforcement, which in turn he known as observational learning. Through modelling, by observing the behaviour of the model and repeating the behaviour ourselves, it is possible to obtain responses that people never performed or viewed previously and also to strengthen or weaken existing responses. Bandura concluded that very much behaviour is definitely learned by imitating the behaviour of other people. At the same time of observational learning, Bandura analysed the type of observational learning and found it managed by four related mechanisms, attentional processes, retention processes, creation processes, and incentive and motivational operations. In attention processes, intellectual processes and perceptual expertise are produced so that experts can pay adequate attention to a model, and perceiving the version accurately enough to imitate displayed behavior. Retention techniques is carried out when the viewer retain or remembering the model's behaviour so that they might imitate or perhaps repeat it by later time. Next, production processes is the stage where the observers convert the mental images or verbal symbolic representations from the model's actions into their very own overt behavior by actually producing the responses and receiving feedback on the accuracy of their continued practice. Finally, in incentive and motivational processes, observers understand that the model's behaviour causes a reward and therefore expecting the imitation is going to lead to related consequences.


Young with Parents

Often , teenage learnt one of the most from their parents, the natural couple who bring them in the world. Father or mother is the 1st teacher inside their children's lifestyle. They taught the children to talk, walk, play, run and more. In teenage stage, teenagers tend to view their father and mother as their role model. They will imitate their very own parent's execute, taking with no consideration that their very own parents' actions is the normative rule...


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